We do not know for sure if Lucca began as a Ligurian or Etruscan settlement, we only know that it developed as a Roman city in 180 BC. The remains of the Roman presence are still visible today in the typical orthogonal arrangement of the streets of the city, in Piazza Anfieteatro, which retains its characteristic shape of a closed elliptical square, and with the Foro.
Lucca is known especially for the Guinigi Tower, famous throughout the world for the oaks that adorn the top. Its roof garden it's very ancient, and the Guinigi family became in the fourteenth century the rulers of the city chosen seven holm oak to symbolize the rebirth of the city of Lucca under their dominion.
Not to be missed, the Cathedral of Lucca, the Cathedral of San Martino. Built between the eleventh and twelfth centuries it hosts important pieces of art such as the Deposition of Nicola Pisano, the tombs of Matteo Civitali, paintings by Ghirlandaio and Tintoretto but especially two masterpieces: the crucifix of the Holy Face and the Funeral Monument to Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia.
In 1805 was established the Principality of Lucca and Piombino, given to Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte. Then, after the Congress of Vienna, was created the Duchy of Lucca, and took over as regent Maria Luisa of Bourbon.
Example of Napoleonic domination is Piazza Napoleone, whose construction commissioned by Elisa Bonaparte changed the original structure of the square. Here is also located the Ducal Palace, headquarters of the political administration, restored in '500 by Ammannati and enlarged in '700 by Juvarra.